Links for Chapter 4

Place and Meaning in Space


Footnote 3

The Degree Confluence Project is at

Footnote 5

Find out more about ‘Null Island’ (i.e., 0°N 0°E) at its wikipedia page.

Footnote 6

The original announcement of geohash is in this blogpost by Greg Niemeyer: You can generate geohash codes at the website (yes http, not https).

Footnote 7

Google’s S2 index is explained at (yes http, not https).

Footnote 8

Uber’s H3 index is described at

Footnote 15

The Wire opens with a comment on place, albeit a very big place: America, which is more of an idea than a place. Inevitably, this link will break quickly, but it’s worth your time.

Figure 4.2

The Bostonography neighborhoods web map is unfortunately no longer working (worth a try, but likely won’t work: This blogpost explains the idea, which someone really should revive in other places, as did Hayden Rickard in his Masters thesis, cited in the text and viewable at this link.

Figure 4.3

The Nominatim geocoder is available at

Figure 4.5

Chris McDowall’s notes on the te reo Māori placenames map are at Te Hiku Media’s ngā-kupu tools for detecting Māori words in text are at

© 2023 David O’Sullivan