Chapter 5

Lines and Areas

Lines are more or less the defining characteristic of maps, invested with all kinds of meaning, not least the demarcation of nation states, properties, and all kinds of administrative entities. In giscience this is recognised most obviously in the modifiable areal unit problem, setting to one side many of the deeper questions that the arbitrariness of such lines—their fiat nature raises (see §Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries and Objects in particular).

© 2023 David O’Sullivan