## Code

```
library(igraph)
library(dplyr)
library(RColorBrewer)
library(ggplot2)
```

figures

code

R

The main difference here is that the output is in colour, which might make it easier to see what’s going on.

```
the_graph <- make_lattice(length = 20, dim = 2, nei = 1)
the_graph <- rewire(the_graph, each_edge(1/400))
vertex_attr(the_graph, 'centrality') <- centralization.closeness(the_graph)$res
# make a bespoke colour for each vertex based on centrality
base_pal <- brewer.pal(11, 'RdYlBu')
pal = colorRampPalette(base_pal)
graphCol = pal(500)[as.numeric(cut(V(the_graph)$centrality, breaks = 500))]
par(mar = rep(1, 4))
layout(matrix(1:9, 3, 3, byrow = TRUE))
plot_graph(the_graph, layout = layout_randomly(the_graph), vertex.color = graphCol)
plot_graph(the_graph, layout = layout.circle(the_graph), vertex.color = graphCol)
plot_graph(the_graph, layout = layout_with_mds(the_graph), vertex.color = graphCol)
plot_graph(the_graph, layout = layout_as_tree(the_graph), vertex.color = graphCol)
plot_graph(the_graph, vertex.color = graphCol)
plot_graph(the_graph, layout = layout_as_tree(the_graph, circular = TRUE), vertex.color = graphCol)
plot_graph(the_graph, layout = layout.kamada.kawai(the_graph), vertex.color = graphCol)
plot_graph(the_graph, layout = layout.drl(the_graph), vertex.color = graphCol)
plot_graph(the_graph, layout = layout.fruchterman.reingold(the_graph), vertex.color = graphCol)
```

```
# License (MIT)
#
# Copyright (c) 2023 David O'Sullivan
#
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person
# obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation
# files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction,
# including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge,
# publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software,
# and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so,
# subject to the following conditions:
#
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
# in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
#
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
# OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
# THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
# LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING
# FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
# DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
```

© 2023 David O’Sullivan